From Tufts University
Tufts study on skin tone, racial prejudice among first to include stereotyping among blacks
Research reopens area of investigation not fully explored by social psychologists MEDFORD/SOMERVILLE, Mass. -- A National Science Foundation-funded study at Tufts University shows racial bias and prejudice are related to the lightness or darkness of a black person's skin -- rather than other features such as hair length or texture, lip fullness or nose width.
"Our research shows that both blacks and whites associate intelligence, motivation and attraction to light-skinned blacks, and being poor or unattractive to dark-skinned blacks," says Tufts University's Keith Maddox, assistant professor of psychology and head of Tufts' Social Cognition Lab (http://ase.tufts.edu/psychology/People/social/maddox/research.html).
The study, "Cognitive Representations of Black Americans: Reexploring the Role of Skin Tone," was recently published in Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. It is based on two studies by Maddox and Tufts graduate student Stephanie Gray, who examined the causal role of skin tone in the perception and representations of blacks.
"Although evidence from a variety of disciplines suggests that skin tone is a basis of discrimination among blacks, research in social psychology had virtually ignored this topic," explained Maddox, who specializes in stereotyping, mental representations of persons and groups, and first impression formations.
He added, "Prior research had only studied cultural stereotypes of blacks in general, but we've found that there exist cultural stereotypes based on the skin tone of blacks. To put it simply, there are degrees of blackness that have social meaning."
In the first part of the study, involving nearly 150 Boston-area college students, blacks and whites were shown photos of blacks with various skin tones. Neutral statements were printed beneath the photos in order to simulate a discussion. In a later test of memory, participants were asked to match the statements with the photographs.
"We ensured that the categorizations were based on skin tone rather than facial features by altering the lightness and darkness of skin tone in the photos," said Maddox.
In the second part of the study, blacks and whites listed characteristics they thought were often associated with dark-skinned and light-skinned blacks. They were allowed to give their personal opinion, which distanced themselves from endorsement of the stereotypic traits they listed. The results showed that both blacks and whites were significantly more likely to associate positive traits to light-skinned blacks, and negative traits to dark skinned blacks.
"We've come a long way since the 1950's in terms of acknowledging racial inequality, but skin tone bias represents a lingering and influential remnant of history," Maddox said. "By examining skin tone bias from a social psychological perspective, we are exploring the interpersonal and intergroup factors involved in these stereotypes. We believe this is the first step in the right direction."
Established by Maddox, Tufts' Social Cognition Lab is focused on two major research programs examining cognitive representations of African Americans based on skin tone and how the perception of ulterior motives can influence social judgments. Maddox's current work is taking his skin tone research to the next level, by examining how people use skin-tone based stereotypes in social judgement.
Tufts University, located on three Massachusetts campuses in Medford/ Somerville, Boston and Grafton, and in Talloires, France, is recognized among the premier universities in the United States. Now in its 150th year, Tufts enjoys a global reputation for academic excellence and for the preparation of students as leaders in a wide range of professions. A growing number of innovative research initiatives spanning all Tufts campuses and joint degree programs are available for both undergraduate and graduate school students in liberal arts, sciences and engineering, and the university's seven graduate and professional schools.